[18] The scholar Josephus in the 1st century CE said that North Africa fed Rome for eight months of the year, with the other four months of needed grain coming from Egypt.

However, Heather also notes that "personal belief must have also played a substantial role in Gaiseric's decision making."[32]. king of the Vandals and the Alans. Although the low-denomination imperial money was replaced, the high-denomination was not, demonstrating in the words of Merrills "reluctance to usurp the imperial prerogative". In 454, at the request of Valentinian III, Gaiseric installed Deogratius as the new Bishop of Carthage, a position that had been left empty since Quodvultdeus's departure. Heather argues that this accession was intended to improve Vandal–Roman relations as Gaiseric negotiated the marriage of his son Huneric to the Princess Eudocia. Hilderic, Hoamer, and their relatives were thrown into prison. [42][43], harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMiles2007 (, Rickman, G.E. According to the law of succession which he had promulgated, the oldest male member of the royal house was to succeed. [20] However, in terms of halting hostilities between Rome and the Vandals, that treaty was honored more in the breach than in the observance, and the Romans placed a high priority on recovering North Africa and regaining their control of grain from the Vandal Kingdom.[18].

Heather argues that this accession was intended to improve Vandal–Roman relations as Gaiseric negotiated the marriage of his son Huneric to the Princess Eudocia. Belisarius quickly advanced to Hippo, second city of the Vandal Kingdom. (1980), "The Grain Trade under the Roman Empire,", harvnb error: no target: CITEREFGreenhalghEliopoulos1985 (, "Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel par Luc Dheere peintre et sculpteur Gantois[manuscript]", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Vandal_Kingdom&oldid=984619377, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. We have created a browser extension.

[12], The impression given by sources such as Victor of Vita, Quodvultdeus, and Fulgentius of Ruspe was that the Vandal takeover of Carthage and North Africa led to widespread destruction. The Vandal Kingdom (Latin: Regnum Vandalum) or Kingdom of the Vandals and Alans (Latin: Regnum Vandalorum et Alanorum) was established by the Germanic Vandal people under Gaiseric. Diplomacy between Rome and the Vandal Kingdom broke down. Belisarius quickly advanced to Hippo, second city of the Vandal Kingdom. Gelimer then lost heart and fled. [9] However, it has been suggested that the Vandals migrated to Africa in search of safety; they had been attacked by a Roman army in 422 and had failed to seal a treaty with them. In 534 Gelimer, besieged at Mount Pappua by the Herulian General Pharas, surrendered to the Byzantines, ending the Kingdom of the Vandals. The fledgling kingdom then conquered the Roman-ruled islands of Mallorca, Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica in the western Mediterranean. [31] Gelimer himself was honourably treated and granted large estates in Galatia, where he lived to be an old man.

The Vandals' territory in North Africa (which is now northern Tunisia and eastern Algeria) became a Byzantine province.

[28], Byzantine Emperor Justinian I declared war, with the stated intention of restoring Hilderic to the Vandal throne. Theodosius II, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, dispatched an expedition to deal with the Vandals in 441, but it progressed only as far as Sicily. However, they had not yet wed when in 455, Valentinian III was murdered by accomplices of the usurper Petronius Maximus, who sought control of the Empire. [24], In the 470s, the Romans abandoned their policy of war against the Vandals. When Hoamer suffered a defeat by the Berbers, the Arian faction within the royal family led a revolt, and Hoamer's cousin Gelimer (530–534) became king. Maximus and Palladius were killed by an angry mob while fleeing the city.

[34], Once Gaiseric secured his hold over Numidia and Mauretania in the treaty of 435, he worked "to destroy the power of the Nicene church in his new territories by seizing the basilicas of three of the most intransigent bishops and expelling them from their cities. The Vandals departed with countless valuables, including the spoils of the Temple in Jerusalem booty brought to Rome by Titus.

led them to north Africa 429 where they created a powerful state.

The Kingdom was later conquered by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I in the Vandalic War.

Kingdom of the Vandals and Alans.

Although primarily remembered for the sack of Rome in 455 and their persecution of Nicene Christians in favor of Arian Christianity, the Vandals were also patrons of learning. Gaiseric chose to break the treaty in 439 when he invaded the province of Africa Proconsularis and laid siege to Carthage. Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea! Grand building projects continued, schools flourished, and North Africa fostered many of the most innovative writers and natural scientists of the late Latin-speaking Western Roman Empire.[5]. [27] Most Vandals remained in North Africa and were absorbed into the native Berber population. Thus he was succeeded by his son Huneric (477–484), who at first tolerated Nicene Christians, owing to his fear of Constantinople, but after 482 began to persecute Manichaeans and Niceanian.[27]. Again, the Vandals fought well but broke, this time when Tzazo fell in battle. "[36] Similar policies continued with the capture of Carthage in 439 as the Vandal king made efforts to simultaneously advance the Arian church and oppress Nicene practices. He notes a "key distinction" between "the anti-Nicene character" of Gaiseric's actions in Proconsularis and the rest of his kingdom; persecution was most intense when it was in proximity to his Arian followers.

While an expedition was en route, Gelimer's brother Tzazo led a large part of the Vandal army and navy to Sardinia to deal with a rebellion by the Gothic nobleman Godas. In the 460s, the Romans launched two unsuccessful military expeditions by sea in an attempt to overthrow the Vandals and reclaim North Africa. Gunthamund's successor Thrasamund (496–523) was a religious fanatic and hostile to Niceanians, but he contented himself with bloodless persecutions. Thus he was succeeded by his son Huneric (477–484), who at first tolerated Nicene Christians, owing to his fear of Constantinople, but after 482 began to persecute Manichaeans and Niceanian.[27].

The conquest of North Africa by the Vandals was a blow to the beleaguered Western Roman Empire as North Africa was a major source of revenue and a supplier of grain (mostly wheat) to the city of Rome. While the Vandal Kingdom thrived most under their first king, Genseric (435-477), their kingdom only started to fall under Gelimer (530-534), when the Byzantines declared war on the Vandals to restore the previous king, who Gelimer had deposed and captured.

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