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The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, 600-1800.

In addition, the adoption of a common currency promoted commerce within the empire. 2020. Muʿāwiyah did not become a Muslim until Muhammad had conquered Mecca and had reconciled his former enemies by gifts. IvyPanda. The founder of the Umayyad Dynasty was Muawiyah I, whose full name was Mu?awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan. For instance, the second Fitna led to a major division among Muslims. It was the largest empire in the world at the time.

Before the establishment of the Umayyad Empire in 661 AD, the capital city of the Islamic empire was situated in Medina. [3], By circa 600, the Quraysh had developed trans-Arabian trade networks, organizing caravans to Syria in the north and Yemen in the south. New York: Routledge, 2002. [28] From his descendants, the Sufyanids, came Mu'awiya I, who founded the Umayyad Caliphate in 661, and Mu'awiya I's son and successor, Yazid I.

As a result, they could have avoided the massive loss of their soldiers due to unfavourable weather conditions.

The same year Mu'awiya, the governor of Syria and future founder of the Umayyad dynasty, ordered construction of a fleet. First, some of the Caliphs who ascended to power adopted ineffective leadership styles. Thus, when ʿAlī was assassinated in 661, Muʿāwiyah held both Syria and Egypt and, as commander of the largest force in the Muslim empire, had the strongest claim to the caliphate. The Umayyads.

Umayyad dynasty, the first great Muslim dynasty to rule the empire of the caliphate (661–750). “The conflict culminated to the first Muslim civil war known as the Fitna” (Berkey 78).

Thereafter, “Yazid died pre-maturely, and his son called Muawiya II succeeded him” (Johnson 78). Eventually, Ali was assassinated, and Muawiya succeeded him as the new Caliph. The two sides clashed at the Battle of the Camel in 656, where Ali won a decisive victory.

The Umayyad dynasty was founded and the capital subsequently moved …

Additionally, the Caliph appointed Muslim governors who were known as Emirs. After the conquest of Mecca, Muhammad appointed a good number of his officials from the Quraysh tribe. [2] These roles passed to his sons Abd Shams, Hashim and others.

Consequently, the Shia Muslims who supported Ali’s family continued to rebel against the Umayyad regime. The Umayyad Empire grew because of various factors, such as a common language, currency, and pilgrimage. This marked the beginning of the Umayyad dynasty, the first hereditary dynasty in the history of Islam, and the only one to rule over the entire Islamic world of its time. [29] Abu 'Amr's grandson ʿUqba ibn Abī Muʿayt was captured and executed on Muhammad's orders during the Battle of Badr for his previously harsh incitement against the prophet.

In particular, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyad Empire during the third Fitna (Agha 56-57). Al-Walid also managed to attain great success during his reign.

Therefore, he relinquished his throne after one year.

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