The letter sigma has an additional lowercase form (ς) used in the final position: In addition to the letters, the Greek alphabet features a number of diacritical signs: three different accent marks (acute, grave, and circumflex), originally denoting different shapes of pitch accent on the stressed vowel; the so-called breathing marks (rough and smooth breathing), originally used to signal presence or absence of word-initial /h/; and the diaeresis, used to mark the full syllabic value of a vowel that would otherwise be read as part of a diphthong. 279-302. CYPRUS", "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger", Censuses of Republic of Azerbaijan 1979, 1989, 1999, 2009, http://armstat.am/file/article/sv_03_13a_520.pdf, “Sociolinguistic Situation of the Tat and Mountain Jews in Azerbaijan,”, Map of Minorities & Regional and Minority Languages of Europe, Language Diversity (2017), Countries by the number of recognized official languages, Countries and capitals in native languages, List of languages without official status, Languages by the number of countries in which they are recognized as an official language, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, International Organization of Turkic Culture, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Languages_of_Europe&oldid=984683403, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with dead external links from February 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from July 2019, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from June 2020, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Indo-European, Romance, Western, West Iberian, Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper, Bavarian, Indo-European, Slavic, South, Western, Serbo-Croatian, Indo-European, Romance, Western, Occitano-Romance, Indo-European, Slavic, West, Czech–Slovak, Indo-European, Germanic, West, Anglo-Frisian, Anglic, Indo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Romance, Indo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Romance, Oïl, Indo-European, Germanic, West, Anglo-Frisian, Indo-European, Romance, Western, Gallo-Italic, Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Indo-European, Hellenic, Greek, Attic-Ionic, Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper, Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Central, Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western, Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Upper, Alemannic, Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Southwest, Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Northwest, Indo-European, Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Southwest. Actual usage of the grave in handwriting saw a rapid decline in favor of uniform usage of the acute during the late 20th century, and it has only been retained in typography. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning at least 3,500 years of written records. Out of a total European population of 744 million as of 2018, some 94% are native speakers of an Indo-European language; within Indo-European, the three largest phyla are Romance, Slavic, and Germanic with more than 200 million speakers each, between them accounting for close to 90% of Europeans. Abkhazia is a de facto state recognized by Russia and a handful of other states, but considered by Georgia to be ruling over a Georgian region. Jeff Wallenfeldt, manager of Geography and History, has worked as an editor at Encyclopaedia Britannica since 1992.

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