There was a permanent armed guard attached to the person of the king, comprising nobles, serfs and mercenaries, but this royal retinue was small.  Some of the nobility functioned as court advisers to the king, as well as holy priests.  There is evidence, however, that suggests Vologases VI continued to mint coins at Seleucia as late as 228 AD.  A fictitious claim was later made from the 2nd-century BC onwards by the Parthians, which represented them as descendants of the Achaemenid king of kings, Artaxerxes II of Persia (r. 404 – 358 BC). For the Parthians frontality is really nothing but the habit of showing, in relief and in painting, all figures full-face, even at the expense (as it seems to us moderns) of clearness and intelligibility. , Marcus Licinius Crassus, one of the triumvirs, who was now proconsul of Syria, invaded Parthia in 53 BC in belated support of Mithridates.  The Shiji also mentions that the Parthians kept records by "writing horizontally on strips of leather," that is, parchment. Despite some victories he was unsuccessful, but did negotiate a peace settlement with Arsaces II. In negotiations conducted in 20 BC, Phraates arranged for the release of his kidnapped son. The latter was granted the title of king (Greek: basileus) in return for his submission to Antiochus III as his superior.  Around this time, Tiridates II of Parthia briefly overthrew Phraates IV, who was able to quickly reestablish his rule with the aid of Scythian nomads.
 His forces defeated and deposed Artavasdes I of Armenia in 97 BC, taking his son Tigranes hostage, who would later become Tigranes II "the Great" of Armenia (r. c. 95–55 BC). , After the Iberian king Pharasmanes I had his son Rhadamistus (r. 51–55 AD) invade Armenia to depose the Roman client king Mithridates, Vologases I of Parthia (r. c. 51–77 AD) planned to invade and place his brother, the later Tiridates I of Armenia, on the throne. For example, when Chinese envoys visited Parthia in the late 2nd century BC, the Shiji maintains that 20,000 horsemen were sent to the eastern borders to serve as escorts for the embassy, although this figure is perhaps an exaggeration.  There were three distinct tiers of nobility, the highest being the regional kings directly below the King of Kings, the second being those related to the King of Kings only through marriage, and the lowest order being heads of local clans and small territories.  The Round Hall of Nisa is similar to Hellenistic palaces, but different in that it forms a circle and vault inside a square space. BC), killing the latter. This backfired when Meherdates was betrayed by the governor of Edessa and Izates bar Monobaz of Adiabene; he was captured and sent to Gotarzes, where he was allowed to live after having his ears mutilated, an act that disqualified him from inheriting the throne.
 The historian Plutarch noted that members of the Suren family, the first among the nobility, were given the privilege of crowning each new Arsacid King of Kings during their coronations. On Trajan's return north, the Babylonian settlements revolted against the Roman garrisons. Under their ambitious emperor Gnaeus Sergius, the Romans invaded southern Mesopotamia in 113 A.D., heading once again against Ctesiphon. The new capital of the Arsacids, Ctesiphon, was partially sacked by the Romans, but much of the Parthian court and military managed to escape. This land would not be restored to Parthia until the reign of Sinatruces (r. c. 78–69 BC).
, Coordinates: 33°05′37″N 44°34′51″E / 33.09361°N 44.58083°E / 33.09361; 44.58083, "Arsacid dynasty" redirects here.  Its latter name comes from its founder, Arsaces I, who led the Parni tribe in conquering the region of Parthia in Iran's northeast, then a satrapy (province) under Andragoras, in rebellion against the Seleucid Empire. , After Syria was occupied by Pacorus' army, Labienus split from the main Parthian force to invade Anatolia while Pacorus and his commander Barzapharnes invaded the Roman Levant. 2nd century AD), a Parthian nobleman and Buddhist monk, traveled to Luoyang in Han China as a Buddhist missionary and translated several Buddhist canons into Chinese. The Origin of Arsacid Dynasty . Arsacid chronology in traditional history.  The earliest Parthian iwans are found at Seleucia, built in the early 1st century AD. 2 Dates from the year in which the Parnian chief Arsaces first battled the Seleucids.  Dense population centers in regions like Babylonia were no doubt attractive to the Romans, whose armies could afford to live off the land.  The Arsacid kings chose typical Zoroastrian names for themselves and some from the "heroic background" of the Avesta, according to V.G. They started as a branch of the Parthian Arsacids but became a distinctly Armenian dynasty later on. In return, the Romans received the lost legionary standards taken at Carrhae in 53 BC, as well as any surviving prisoners of war. As culturally and religiously tolerant as the Parthians were, they adopted Greek as their official language, while Aramaic remained the lingua franca in the empire.
The Arsacid King Vologases III was able to flee into the Persian mountains, but was largely unable to recover his forces in time. From its origins in the lands of Parthia by the Caspian Sea, the Arsacids progressively took land from the Seleucids, Alexander's successors who owned the regions of Persia and Bactria. Yet by 122 BC, Mithridates II forced Hyspaosines out of Babylonia and made the kings of Characene vassals under Parthian suzerainty. Origins.
3 Includes the Tahirid, Samanid, Ghaznavid, and Buyid dynasties.  Phraates demanded Pompey return Tigranes the Younger to him, but Pompey refused.