The pure Walden water is mingled with the sacred water of the Ganges. Transcendentalism contributed to the American renaissance by focusing thought on the power of the individual, personal spirituality, and a belief that... Our experts can answer your tough homework and study questions. Civil War and it has been closely identified with

in journalism. Emerson argued not only for a new American culture, freed from European bondage, but also for a rebirth of an intellectual and artistic life that was inextricably bound up with the life of the spirit. Emerson was the unofficial leader of the transcendentalist movement. It started to develop after Unitarianism took hold at Harvard University, following the elections of Henry Ware as the Hollis Professor of Divinity in 1805 and of John Thornton Kirkland as President in 1810. spiritual or transcendental truths beyond sense perception and

Transcendentalists believe that society and its institutions—particularly organized religion and political parties—corrupt the purity of the individual. Receive our newsletter for the latest news, events and more.

Their beliefs are closely linked with those of the Romantics, but differ by an attempt to embrace or, at least, to not oppose the empiricism of science. Early transcendentalists were largely unacquainted with German philosophy in the original and relied primarily on the writings of Thomas Carlyle, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Victor Cousin, Germaine de Staël, and other English and French commentators for their knowledge of it. Martin Kelly, M.A., is a history teacher and curriculum developer.

Author [5][6] It was also strongly influenced by Hindu texts on philosophy of the mind and spirituality, especially the Upanishads. Dear friends, Thank you for helping us build a comprehensive online archive of American song. It began in the 1830s in America and was heavily influenced by German philosophers including Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Immanuel Kant, along with English writers like William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. [35][36][37], Major figures in the transcendentalist movement were Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, and Amos Bronson Alcott. people instead of aristocrats and freedom instead of authoritarian Among those associated with the movement were Emerson, Thoreau, and the Alcotts.

[13] They have faith that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent.

Transcendentalism was a visionary way of thinking that was widespread in 19th-century American art and thinking.

In arguing that Melville, Hawthorne, Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Walt Whitman changed the national conversation about the ideal of democracy, Matthiessen changed the critical conversation about what we talk about when we talk about American literature” (Phillips 1).

way, the American Renaissance expands all the way to the present With Thoreau's Walden as a guide, the first Ikeda Forum (2004) explored connections between American Transcendentalism and Eastern wisdom traditions. in the mid-19th century was nothing new. Transcendentalists differ in their interpretations of the practical aims of will.

The writings of the Transcendentalists and those of contemporaries such as Walt Whitman, Herman Melville, and Nathaniel Hawthorne, for whom they prepared the ground, represent the first flowering of the American artistic genius and introduced the American Renaissance in literature (see also American literature: American Renaissance).

writing style back to literary and political traditions of the 18th The following is a list of American

1870), Frances Sargent Locke Osgood (1811 – Eclectic and cosmopolitan in its sources and part of the Romantic movement, New England Transcendentalism originated in the area around Concord, Massachusetts, and from 1830 to 1855 represented a battle between the younger and older generations and the emergence of a new national culture based on native materials. in American Thought in 1927, Fred Lewis Pattee’s The First Century

CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHalbfass1995 (, "The Project Gutenberg eBook of Summer on the Lakes, by S. M. Fuller", "Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience", "The Rhetoric of Experience and the Study of Religion", Relationship between religion and science, International Council of Unitarians and Universalists, Unitarian Universalist Christian Fellowship, Drafting and ratification of Constitution, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Transcendentalism&oldid=981967017, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from July 2015, Articles with Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Dillard, Daniel, “The American Transcendentalists: A Religious Historiography,”, Rose, Anne C. Social Movement, 1830–1850, This page was last edited on 5 October 2020, at 12:46.

The Cambridge Companion to the Literature of the American Renaissance.

Edited by Christopher N. Phillips.

although Matthiessen first coined the phrase “American

Transcendentalism influenced a number of important American writers, who helped create a national literary identity.


Anti-transcendental or dark romantic authors include Edgar Allan Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville. Question: How did transcendentalism figure in the American Renaissance? Concord, Massachusetts, a village not far from Cambridge, was the home of leaders of another important New England group.
of American Literature in 1935, and Van Wyck Brooks’s The Flowering

self-wisdom, nature and social reform. Anti-transcendentalism explored the darker side of human nature and thought.


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